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Friday, 4 January 2013

1.   Describe the changes taking place at the edge of an HIC city you have studied (9)

The edge of a HIC city that I have studied is the Southside Reading area around junction 11 of the M4. In the past the area was mainly dominated by landfill sites and old gravel pits, the most significant building was the Courage Brewery.
The first major development was a new dual carriageway, which was built to relieve pressure from the A33 to Basingstoke.
The next development was the relocation of the Reading Football club from the hemmed in inner city location at Elm Park, to the brand new Madjeski Stadium in the outskirts of Reading. Next to the stadium there is also Reading Gate, which s an out-of-town shopping centre. Reading Gate includes many well-known shops such as B&Q, DIY Supercentre Comet and BHS.
Reading International Business Park was developed to cope with the rising demand in business space. Green Park is another business and science park; it is being developed over a 10 year period and will eventually accommodate a workforce of over 7000 people. When it is completed green Park will be one of the largest business parks in Britain.
Another project that has been approved is the Green Park Village. The Green Park Village is a new community to the west of the Green Park. The development includes 700 high quality energy efficient homes and a lake. It also includes a railway station and a primary school.
Reading Gateway is the space between the Stadium, Green Park and Reading International Business Park.  It is a mixed scheme of at least 850 homes, business space and a hotel on the existing sewage treatment works at Manor Farm Road.
Kennet Island is another housing project. It is located halfway between Reading Town Centre and the M4 motorway.  Part of the development is covered by an initiative set up by the government called “My Choice Homebuy”, this aims at giving first time buyers a chance to get on the property ladder.  Most of the land was previously used by Reading’s water treatment works.

2.   Explain the reasons for the changes you have identified in your answer above (9)
The decentralisation of residents and businesses to the rural urban fringe has been caused by many different factors.
Suburbanisation is the outward spread of the urban area, often at lower densities compared with the older parts of a town or city.
In 1901 the population of Reading was 73000, now it was population of around 160000. This growth has forced the town to change.  There were some sites which were in urgent need of regeneration, so the council devised its South-West Reading Development brief in 2000. These proposals include, improving accessibility and developing an orbital transport service.
Urban Sprawl is another cause, it is a result of Greenfield development, and Inner cities have been neglected because of the advantages of Greenfield development. These advantages are that Greenfield sites allow you to build bigger, companies are often free to build as big as they want Also parking is not an issue. Greenfield sites have loads of space dedicated towards parking. Parking lots mean an even bigger draw for possible consumers.
Liability is also not an issue as there are almost no environmental problems with Greenfield sites this means that there is less or no liability. Because of this lack of environmental liability banks are more likely to offer you a loan to develop Greenfield sites
Tax incentives are also a bonus; there are few tax incentives to develop Brownfield sites. In suburban areas the costs of water, energy construction labour and waste disposal are often less also environmental impact reports are not required prior to development.
 One of the reasons people move out of the city is that they do not feel satisfied with the inner city life; this is caused by different push factors. The housing is old, congested and relatively expensive. There are various forms of environmental pollution. Unused lad is costly.
There are also some pull factors that draw people towards the urban fringe. The Land is cheaper so the houses can be larger. Factories are more spacious and have parking facilities. Proximity to major roads allows for easier and quicker customer contact. 
There has also been an increase in out-of-town retailing, with large purpose built superstores. There is easy accessibility because the superstores are located next to major roads. There are also large free car parks to park your cars. On the other hand in the city centre there is congestion and expensive parking. These out-of-town shopping centres are also designed with leisure activities included so that there is something for all of the family.
Industrial estates, business parks and science parks will be attracted b the availability of labour nearby, better accessibility, cheaper land and the attractive setting.


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